Deluxe Backgammon bei deltamisteri.com | Günstiger Preis | Kostenloser Versand ab 29€ für ausgewählte Artikel. the backgammon rule of doubling cube. Backgammon Regel des Verdoppelungswürfels. Backgammon is the doubling cube for raising the stakes. Spiele mit Backgammon Live das beste online Backgammon-Spiel kostenlos! In diesem klassischen Würfelspiel kannst du dein Würfelglück und deine.
What Is Backgammon GameBackgammon Set - Fantastic Board Game of Strategy bei deltamisteri.com | Günstiger Preis | Kostenloser Versand ab 29€ für ausgewählte Artikel. Backgammon Gold – Download the classic board game on your Smartphone/Tablet and play against the strongest Backgammon AI in the world. ** Over 2 million. the backgammon rule of doubling cube. Backgammon Regel des Verdoppelungswürfels. Backgammon is the doubling cube for raising the stakes.
What Is Backgammon Short history of backgammon VideoOldest Games Humans Play? - History of Games - Go Chess Checkers Backgammon Control of the doubling cube allows the opponent the Ottakringer Helles to issue a new double-up challenge if, at some point, he or she feels confident in taking over the lead. All of Spiele 1001 Spiele happens during A's turn; A now rolls the dice and the game continues. I moved my markers incorrectly to the number rolled and it wasn't discovered until my opponent had rolled but not played. Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.
During many centuries, backgammon developed through the Middle East and Greece, where it is still very popular today. The rules are pretty similar to the one we still use today, but without any references to the doubling cube.
The addition of the doubling cube is believed to have happened in New York City in some gaming club of the Lower East Side.
This invention adds another strategic dimension to the game. One that the best players can exploit. The concept is simple : if you feel that you have an advantage over your opponent at any point of the game, you can offer to double the stake always before you roll the dice.
Your opponent has 2 choices :. The doubling cube speeds up the game and allows the best players, with a better understanding of the position, to take advantage of their knowledge during a match.
Either by trapping their opponent to accept a cube in a bad position or by trying to bluff them and make them drop to cash in the game quickly.
The backgammon match is the format used during tournaments. The two players have to reach a total of points always odd to win the match.
You can play a match to 3, 5, 7 or even 25 points. Backgammon opening theory is not developed in as much detail as opening theory in chess , which has been widely studied.
The reason for this is that following the first move in backgammon, there are 21 dice roll outcomes on each subsequent move, and many alternative plays for each outcome, making the tree of possible positions in backgammon expand much more rapidly than in chess.
Despite the complications posed by this rapid branching of possibilities, over the course of many years, a consensus did develop among backgammon experts on what is the preferred opening move for each given roll.
Following the emergence of self-trained backgammon-playing neural networks , the insights on what are the best opening moves have changed in some unexpected ways.
The table below summarizes the most commonly preferred moves, for each of the 15 possible opening rolls, as selected by detailed computer simulations, referred to as " rollouts ".
Whoever rolls higher moves first, using the numbers on the already-rolled dice. In the case of a tie, the players roll again. In cases where no preferred play but only two or more alternative plays are given, these appear to be of equivalent strength within the statistical uncertainties of the simulations and no play could be singled out that is clearly superior.
The moves are captured in standard backgammon notation. The latter move should be as small as possible resulting in a builder close to the point , unless the stack at the 8-point can be reached resulting in an equal distribution between the point and the 8-point.
In fact, historians have uncovered evidence that a version of the backgammon may have existed as early as 3, BC. There is also evidence that backgammon was a popular game played by the ancient Romans.
The modern-day version of backgammon has been played throughout the world since the 19th century. Amazingly, inhabitants of every continent have been enjoying backgammon for hundreds of years.
Backgammon is a board game requiring two players. He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India.
The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak. Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
Iranologist Touraj Daryaee , Chair of Persian Studies at U. Irvine, on the first written mention of earlier variants of backgammon—writes:. The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially, no-one in the court is able to make any progress.
On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game. As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon. Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point.
The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.
In long nardi , one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube.
It is described in an epigram of Byzantine Emperor Zeno AD — Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six.
The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
The earliest known mention of the game is in Ovid 's Ars Amatoria 'The Art of Love' , written between 1 BC and 8 AD.
In Roman times, this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt. Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC.
The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Players try to flip their pieces over the opponents' pieces to beat them. Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and create a lively atmosphere.
Portes: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.
Plakoto : A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. Asodio: Also known as Acey-deucey , where all checkers are off the board, and players enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.
These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns.
After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first. There is no doubling cube. Over time it was replaced by other games such as xiangqi Chinese chess.
In Japan, ban-sugoroku is thought to have been brought from China in the 6th century, and is mentioned in Genji monogatari.
As a gambling game, it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.
In Korea, it is called Ssang-ryuk or Jeopo. The jeux de tables 'Games of Tables' , predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers.
In , Louis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing. In Spain , the Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegos , completed in , describes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess.
A wooden board and checkers were recovered from the wreck of the Vasa among the belongings of the ship's officers.
Backgammon appears widely in paintings of this period, mainly those of Dutch and German painters, such as Van Ostade , Jan Steen , Hieronymus Bosch , and Bruegel.
Some surviving artworks are Cardsharps by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and The Triumph of Death by Pieter Bruegel the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right.
Others include Hell Bosch and Interior of an Inn by Jan Steen. In the 16th century, Elizabethan laws and church regulations prohibited playing tables, but by the 18th century, backgammon was popular among the English clergy.
In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English : gamen , meaning "game" or "play".
The earliest use documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in The most recent major development in backgammon was the addition of the doubling cube.
It was first introduced in the s in New York City among members of gaming clubs in the Lower East Side. The popularity of backgammon surged in the mids, in part due to the charisma of Prince Alexis Obolensky who became known as "The Father of Modern Backgammon".
He also established the World Backgammon Club of Manhattan, devised a backgammon tournament system in , then organized the first major international backgammon tournament in March , which attracted royalty, celebrities and the press.
Cigarette, liquor and car companies began to sponsor tournaments, and Hugh Hefner held backgammon parties at the Playboy Mansion.
Most recently, the United States Backgammon Federation USBGF was organized in to repopularize the game in the United States. Board and committee members include many of the top players, tournament directors and writers in the worldwide backgammon community.
The USBGF has recently created a Standards of Ethical Practice to address issues on which tournament rules fail to touch.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. One of the oldest board games for two players. For other uses, see Backgammon disambiguation. A backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of 15 checkers, two pairs of dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups.
Play media. Main article: Tables board game. This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, the picture is incorrect because it does not take into account that when rolling doubles, a given distance may be traveled using the rolled number 3 or 4 times.
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See also: List of World Backgammon champions. See also: Nard game. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. New Series 1 9 : — A History of Board-Games Other than Chess.
Hacker Art Books. Backgammon For Dummies. Backgammon to Win. Lulu Com. Backgammon Galore!. Rules of play describe a particular variation of backgammon and on this there is no disagreement among international tournaments.
In fact, tournament rules sets do not usually specify these rules but might instead refer, as in the US Rules, to the 'commonly accepted rules of backgammon.
Gaming Guide - Gambling in Europe. Backgammon for Winners Third ed. Hoyle's Rules of Games Third Revised and Updated ed.
To start the game, each player throws a single die. This determines both the player to go first and the numbers to be played.
Retrieved Backgammon for Serious Players Second ed. Archived from the original on