The rule implies that in an n-point game if either player is ahead and gets to n-1 points then none of the players is allowed to use the doubling cube in the next. The opponent selects a die—then the roller—then the opponent—with the roller then taking the last one. For the opening throw, each player throws a single die. Every tie requires another opening throw. Whoever throws the higher number wins, and for his first move plays the numbers upon both dice. Backgammon rules in German. Backgammon ist ein Spiel für zwei Spieler, das auf einem Brett gespielt wird, das aus vierundzwanzig länglichen Dreiecken.
BackgammonAblehnen des Eröffnungswurfes – California Rule[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Diese. Hamilton, Robert, Backgammon, Rules of the Game, Photo vorhanden. Goren Norfolk, Tim, Backgammon, Rules, Strategy, Winning Play, Photo. Many translated example sentences containing "backgammon tips" know about backgammon: its rules, online backgammon websites, tips and specific.
Rules To Backgammon The Set-up VideoBackgammon: Learn to Play in Under 4 Minutes Given that Backgammon was historically a gambling game, it’s common to use gambling rules to raise the stakes during the game. Typically this is done through initial bets and a doubling cube. Initial Bets. The initial bet is the agreed upon amount each player will wager at the beginning of the game. If you are able to bear off all 15 of your checkers before your opponent has the chance to bear any of theirs, and your opponent still has a checker on your home board then the win is considered a backgammon and is worth 3 points!. If you roll doubles, you have a total of four moves to make. In other words, if you roll double 5s, you can take four moves of five spaces using any combination of checkers (subject to the usual rules related to making moves). How to Play Backgammon. The fact that people have been playing Backgammon for over 5, years is proof enough that it's really fun. It's actually one of the oldest board games!. The main principle of the backgammon rules. Backgammon is basically a race game between two players. Each player has 15 checkers (or men) that he needs to bring home faster than his opponent. The checkers move on a board composed of 24 triangles, also known as point.
Players can leave or join a chouette at any time. A new player starts at the bottom of the rotation. A chouette may be played with either a single doubling cube or multiple cubes.
In a single-cube game, the only decision that the members of the team make individually concerns takes. If the box doubles, each team member can decide on his own whether to play on or drop out.
Those who drop out each pay off to the box and no longer participate as team advisers. If the captain drops out while there are others on the team who wish to play on, the captaincy is assumed by one of these players and the previous captain drops to the bottom of the rotation.
Most chouettes today use multiple cubes. Each member of the team has his own doubling cube. The box can double the individual team members, and each team member can decide whether and when to double the box.
With multiple cubes in play, it is possible for the box to win against some players while losing against others.
So the question arises, when does a player get to keep the box? The usual rule is that a player retains the box if he defeats the captain.
Customs vary as to the rights of the team. In some chouettes, they may consult freely as to how rolls should be played. Too much consulting, however, can really slow the game down, so many chouettes ban consulting.
A popular compromise permits consultation only after the cube has been turned. USBGF - US Backgammon Federation Growing backgammon. Serving players.
A not-for-profit organization devoted to advancing the awareness, participation, education and enjoyment of the skill-based game of backgammon.
ABT Online! Rules ABT Online! Technology Training ABT Online! The triangles alternate in color and are grouped into four quadrants of six triangles each.
The home and outer boards are separated from each other by a ridge down the center of the board called the bar. Figure 1. A board with the checkers in their initial position.
The dice has to be higher than the highest point in order to do this. The player that successfully removes all of their checkers from the home board first wins the game!
If you are able to remove all 15 of your checkers before your opponent as borne off any of theirs then it is considered a gammon and the win is worth two points as opposed to one.
If you are able to bear off all 15 of your checkers before your opponent has the chance to bear any of theirs, and your opponent still has a checker on your home board then the win is considered a backgammon and is worth 3 points!
I have a question; Player A has all of his men in his home. A takes off a 5. Can A take off his 6 when ihe is blocked from going 6?
If you can only play one of the numbers, then you can play that number and lose your turn on the other number. If you can only play one number or the other, then you have to play the higher number.
If you can't play the doubled number you've rolled, you lose your turn. Keep your checkers safe. If one of your checker's gets hit, then it will go to the bar and you will have to use your next turn to roll and try to reenter the board in your opponent's home board.
Do your best to keep at least two of your checkers on a point, at least early in the game. Try to dominate the board. Before you start moving your pieces into your home court, you should try to have many points occupied by 2 or 3 checkers instead of just a few points occupied by 5 or 6 checkers.
This will not only give you more options to move to open points, but will also make it harder for your opponent to move to an open point.
Part 3 of Hit a blot to move your opponent's checkers to the bar. If you hit a blot , a point occupied by just one of your opponent's checkers, then the opponent's checkers will be placed on the bar.
You should try to hit the blots whenever possible, as long as it helps you move your pieces as close to your home court as possible.
This is a great way to slow down your opponent. Enter your pieces when they are taken out. If a player hits a blot with one of your pieces on it, then you have to place your own checker on your bar.
Your task is now to move that checker back onto the opposing home board. You can do this by rolling the dice and then moving the checker onto an open point on your opponent's home board, if you roll an open number.
If you do not roll an open number, then you lose your turn and you will have to try again on your next turn. This is because you're moving your checker two points over from the bar.
You may not use the sum of the two numbers to choose a space. For example, if you roll a 6 and a 2, you cannot add them and move your piece onto the 8th point.
You can only move your checker onto the 6th or the 2nd point to reenter. Move your other checkers after you have gotten all of your checker s off the bar.
Once you get your checker s off the bar and back onto the board, you can move your other checkers again. If you only had one checker to enter, then you can use the other number that you rolled to move one of your other checkers.
If you can only enter one checker during a dice roll, then you will have to try again on your next turn. If you have more than two checkers on the bar, you can only move your other checkers once all the checkers on the bar are entered.
Part 4 of Understand how to win the game. To win the game, you need to be the first one to bear off, or remove, all of your checkers from the board and into your tray.
To bear off your checkers, you need to roll both dice and use the numbers to move pieces into the tray. The numbers you roll must be exact or higher than the number of spaces needed to remove each piece from the board.
But if you do not have a checker on the 6 point, you can bear it off from the next highest point on your board, such as the 5th or 4th point. Move all of your checkers into your home court.
You can only start bearing off your checkers once they are all in your home court. I am really inspired together with your writing talents and also with the format on your blog.
Is that this a paid theme or did you customize it your self? Either way stay up the excellent high quality writing, it is uncommon to see a great weblog like this one these days.
Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Backgammon Board. The dice must be rolled together and land flat on the surface of the right-hand section of the board.
The player must reroll both dice if a die lands outside the right-hand board, or lands on a checker, or does not land flat. A turn is completed when the player picks up his dice.
If the play is incomplete or otherwise illegal, the opponent has the option of accepting the play as made or of requiring the player to make a legal play.
A play is deemed to have been accepted as made when the opponent rolls his dice or offers a double to start his own turn. If a player rolls before his opponent has completed his turn by picking up the dice, the player's roll is voided.
This rule is generally waived any time a play is forced or when there is no further contact between the opposing forces. Rules in German.
Rules in Italian. Rules in Portugese. Rules in Hungarian. Rules in French. For example, a roll of 6 and 4 can be used to move two checkers 6 and 4 spaces respectively or one checker 6 spaces, and then another 4 spaces.
Whenever doubles are rolled in the game, they may be played twice. For example a roll of 3 and 3 can be used to move 3 spaces up to 4 times.
If a single checker is on a space it is considered vulnerable. If the opponent lands on this checker it is removed from the board and placed on the bar.
They roll them onto the board on the corresponding numbered space on their opponents home board. Before removing pieces from the game can commence, all 15 a players checkers must be in their home board.
Once a player has successfully entered all their pieces into their home board, they can start bearing off. This is done by rolling a number equal to how many spaces are left until the checker leaves the board.
So a checker on the 6 point would need a roll of 6 to bear off. The game is over and a winner is declared whenever someone removes their last checker from the game.
It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game. Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.
In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks. TD-Gammon , developed by Gerald Tesauro of IBM , was the first of these programs to play near the expert level.
Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.
Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players. The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
Neural network research has resulted in three modern proprietary programs , JellyFish,  Snowie  and eXtreme Gammon,  as well as the shareware BGBlitz  and the free software GNU Backgammon.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice.
For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq.
The Royal Game of Ur from BCE may also be an ancestor or intermediate of modern-day table games like backgammon. It used tetrahedral dice.
Various other other board games spanning from the 10th to 7th centuries BCE have been found throughout modern day Iraq, Syria, Egypt and western Iran.
Today the game in various forms continues to be commonly played in Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan throughout the Arab world. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq, the game is commonly called tawle , which means table.
This may represent a shared name origin with the Roman or Byzantine variant of the game. It is also commonly referred to by shesh besh shesh meaining six in Hebrew , Aramaic and Northwest Semitic , and besh meaning five in Turkish , amongst Arabs as well as by some Kurdish, Persian and Turkish speakers.
Shesh Besh is commonly used to refer to when a player scores a 5 and 6 at the same time on dice. An older game resembling backgammon may have also been played in the easternmost part of the prehistoric Iranian plateau , far from Mesopotamia.
The rules of this game, like others found in Egypt, have yet to be deciphered. It is however made from ebony, a material more likely to be found in the Indian subcontinent which indicates such board games may be more widespread than once thought.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
Iranologist Touraj Daryaee , Chair of Persian Studies at U. Irvine, on the first written mention of earlier variants of backgammon—writes:. The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially, no-one in the court is able to make any progress.
On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game. As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon. Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point.
The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board. In long nardi , one checker by itself can block a point.
There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube. It is described in an epigram of Byzantine Emperor Zeno AD — Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six.
The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
The earliest known mention of the game is in Ovid 's Ars Amatoria 'The Art of Love' , written between 1 BC and 8 AD. In Roman times, this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.
Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC.