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Romanian Gods And Goddesses The Future Lies In The Past VideoTop 10 Gods and Goddesses of ROMAN MYTHOLOGY
Some Roman literary sources accord the same title to Maia and other goddesses. Even in invocations , which generally required precise naming, the Romans sometimes spoke of gods as groups or collectives rather than naming them as individuals.
Some groups, such as the Camenae and Parcae , were thought of as a limited number of individual deities, even though the number of these might not be given consistently in all periods and all texts.
The following groups, however, are numberless collectives. The di indigetes were thought by Georg Wissowa to be Rome's indigenous deities, in contrast to the di novensides or novensiles , "newcomer gods".
No ancient source, however, poses this dichotomy, which is not generally accepted among scholars of the 21st century. The meaning of the epithet indiges singular has no scholarly consensus, and noven may mean "nine" novem rather than "new".
A lectisternium is a banquet for the gods, at which they appear as images seated on couches, as if present and participating. In describing the lectisternium of the Twelve Great gods in BC, the Augustan historian Livy places the deities in gender-balanced pairs: .
Divine male-female complements such as these, as well as the anthropomorphic influence of Greek mythology, contributed to a tendency in Latin literature to represent the gods as "married" couples or as in the case of Venus and Mars lovers.
Varro uses the name Dii Consentes for twelve deities whose gilded images stood in the forum. These were also placed in six male-female pairs.
A fragment from Ennius , within whose lifetime the lectisternium occurred, lists the same twelve deities by name, though in a different order from that of Livy: Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercurius, Jove, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo.
The Dii Consentes are sometimes seen as the Roman equivalent of the Greek Olympians. The meaning of Consentes is subject to interpretation, but is usually taken to mean that they form a council or consensus of deities.
Varro  gives a list of twenty principal gods of Roman religion:. Varro, who was himself of Sabine origin, gives a list of Sabine gods who were adopted by the Romans:.
Elsewhere, Varro claims Sol Indiges , who had a sacred grove at Lavinium , as Sabine but at the same time equates him with Apollo.
Saturn, for instance, can be said to have another origin here, and so too Diana. The indigitamenta are deities known only or primarily as a name; they may be minor entities, or epithets of major gods.
Lists of deities were kept by the College of Pontiffs to assure that the correct names were invoked for public prayers.
The books of the Pontiffs are lost, known only through scattered passages in Latin literature. The most extensive lists are provided by the Church Fathers who sought systematically to debunk Roman religion while drawing on the theological works of Varro, also surviving only in quoted or referenced fragments.
Roscher collated the standard modern list of indigitamenta ,  though other scholars may differ with him on some points. A number of figures from Greek mythology who were not part of Roman religious practice appear in Latin mythological narratives and as poetic allusions; for these names, see:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. Marcus Aurelius head covered sacrificing at the Temple of Jupiter.
It is not to be confused with Pantheon, Rome. Jupiter Mars Quirinus. A female deity characterizing the hunt, wildlands, nature, and the moon among the ancient Roman gods, Diana was also regarded as an entity who was antithetically the virgin goddess of childbirth and women.
In essence, she belonged to the triad of female Roman goddesses along with Minerva and Vesta who were maidens; and the mythical narrative often portrayed her as the twin sister of Apollo and daughter of Jupiter.
And while she is often equated to her Greek counterpart Artemis , the origins of Diana probably harked back to an indigenous Italic or older Indo-European entity.
Lucina is identified with it, which is why in our country they invoke Juno Lucina in childbirth, just as the Greeks call on Diana the Light-bearer.
She is invoked at childbirth because children are born occasionally after seven, or usually after nine, lunar revolutions….
On occasions, she was also considered as one of the Roman gods of the dark world of the dead, thus being the equivalent of Greek goddess Hecate.
As for his attributes, Vulcan was considered as the Roman god of fire including volcanoes , metallurgy, and forges.
Now interestingly enough, the oldest sanctuary of Vulcan, known as the Vulcanal or Volcanal was probably situated at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, and this site revealed a Greek pottery fragment dated to circa 6th century BC that possibly depicted Hephaestus or Hephaistos , the Greek god of fire and metalworking.
In essence, Vulcan was probably one of the earlier Roman gods who was equated to an ancient Greek counterpart.
At the same time, Vulcan also matched the aspects of Sethlans , an ancient Etruscan god. In any case, the Romans celebrated Vulcanalia , the festival of Vulcan, at a time in the year in August when the crops and grains had the greatest chance of catching fire from the heat.
So in a bid to appease the god of fire, the citizens made ceremonial bonfires — into which sacrificial fishes and small animals were thrown in.
And in the mythical narrative, in spite of being beautiful, she rejected the advances of other divine suitors like Apollo and Neptune. Instead, she appealed to Jupiter to allow her to remain a virgin.
Thus Vesta came to be associated as the Roman goddess of the hearth, home, and domestic scope — and her Greek equivalent was Hestia , the ancient entity representing domesticity, family, and architecture.
And in spite of being related to Etruscan god Turms , by the time of the Roman Republic circa 3rd century BC , Mercury was often equated to his ancient Greek counterpart Hermes the messenger god , which resulted in his depiction with apparels like the winged sandals talaria and a winged hat petasos.
Interestingly enough, Mercury was also among the Roman gods whose aspects were played a syncretic role when it came to the scope of worship of similar deities from other ancient cultures.
For example, Julius Caesar mentioned how Mercury was a rather popular divine entity in Gaul and Britain. To that end, Mercury might have been equated to the Celtic god Lugus , who in spite of being the god of light, also bore aspects that symbolized trade and commerce.
By virtue of the same cultural trait, Tacitus mentioned how Mercury also the chief god of the Germanic people, possibly being the equivalent of native Wotan.
First, the rural character of the Romanian communities resulted in an exceptionally vital and creative traditional culture. They were both a source of inspiration for cultivated creators and a structural model.
Second, for a long time learned culture was governed by official and social commands and developed around courts of princes and boyars, as well as in monasteries.
Stories suggest God made the earth with the help of animals, while Satan was trying to thwart his plans. These stories appear not only in Romanian folklore, but also in those of Aromanian, Slavic Macedonian and Bulgarian folklore.
Upon deciding to create the earth, God sent the Devil to bring a handful of clay from the ground of the World Ocean in his holy name. The Devil set forth and tried to bring it to the surface in his name instead, but could not succeed until he brought it up in the name of God.
As this piece of clay grew into the earth, God laid himself down to sleep. After trying to throw God off the earth in every one of the four cardinal directions, he shied away from the cross he drew in the ground himself.
Other accounts, closer to the biblical one, suggest that the Devil and his demons were once angels of God.
The Devil, however, tried to rebel, and, in response, God opened up the heavens so that he might fall to the earth. Fearing that Heaven might be voided, the archangel Michael re-sealed it, thus freezing the demons that had not yet fallen to hell in place.
This is related to the concept of soul customs , where every soul is intercepted on its way to heaven by these demons, who force it into hell.
Another question commonly addressed is that of the origin of God, which is explained in a Russian doll -type fashion; before every God there was another God that created him.
Thus explaining the many names the Bible used for God , the Oltenians believed the first God was called Sabaoth , followed by Amon , Apollo , the Creator God of the Bible and, finally, Jesus Christ.
Even after Christian imagery and symbolism became part of Romanian culture, Mother Earth is identified as the consort of God, the heavenly Father.
The origin of mountains is explained in a number of ways by the cultures of the different regions of Romania.
One account is that mountains formed as a response to God demanding the Earth to nurture all life, to which the earth shuddered and brought forth mountains.
Another version suggests the Earth was too large to fit under the firmament , and so God attempted to shrink it, thus raising mountains. Often, these accounts are accompanied by the imagery of one or several World Pillars, which sustain the earth from below and are usually placed beneath mountains.
Earthquakes are frequently attributed to the earth slipping due to the Devil's constant gnawing at these pillars, which are rebuilt by God and his angels in times of fasting.
The etymology of the word blajin adj. Thomas Sunday. Easter of Blajini is called also Easter of Deaths or Mighty Easter. Romanians generally perceived the earth as a disc, and they imagined what existed on the other side.
They are described as anthropomorphic and short, sometimes having the head of a rat. They are either described as malicious or as having great respect for God and leading a sinless life.
They are considered to fast the year through, and thus doing humans a great service. Since they live in isolation, they have no way of knowing when Easter comes.
Blajin also means a dead child who did not receive the benediction of Holy Spirit. Others think that they used to live alongside humans on the earth, but Moses , seeing his people oppressed by them, split the waters and, after he and his people had retreated to safety, poured the waters back onto them, sending them to their current abode.
The Latin word 'orgia' originally meant "secret rites" and from which the modern word 'orgy' is derived. Roman Gods: Minerva Minerva was the name of the goddess of wisdom, the daughter of Jupiter.
Her symbols and weapons reflected her strategic approach and her preparation for war and were symbols of victory. Minerva was a member of the Capitoline Triad which consisted of three major gods - Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.
The most important temples in Rome were dedicated to the triad of gods and situated on the Capitoline Hill. Roman Gods: Ceres Ceres was the goddess of agriculture.
The sister of Vesta, Pluto, Neptune and Jupiter. The mother of Proserpina by Jupiter who was abducted by Pluto and carried off into the Underworld.
Her name originates from the Latin word 'Cerealis' meaning "of grain" from which we derive the modern word 'cereal'. Roman Gods: Vulcan Vulcan was the name of the Roman god of fire and metal-working and the son of Jupiter and Juno.
His name derives from the Latin word 'Vulcanus' meaning "fire, flames, volcano". Vulcan was highly honored by the Romans who debated the most important issues of the republic in his temple.
Roman Gods: Pluto Pluto was the Roman god of the Underworld and the brother of Jupiter, Vesta, Neptune and Ceres. Animal Sacrifices were made to Pluto at the Roman Colosseum where a marble altar was set in the middle of the arena, complete with a burning fire.
As the god of Death the name of Pluto was used in Roman curse tablets. Roman Gods: Diana Diana was the name of the goddess of the hunt and the moon.
She was the daughter of Jupiter and Latona and the twin sister of Apollo. As an emblem of chastity she was especially venerated by young maidens, they sacrificed their hair to her before marrying.
Her name was first known as Diviana meaning "to shine". Roman Gods: Apollo Apollo was the name of the god of the sun, music, healing, archery and prophecy.